Extinction is defined as the cessation of existence of a species within an area. This reduces biodiversity within that area and can affect the health, population size and persistence of other species due to direct and indirect effects of the species's disappearance.

Extinction rates refer to the number of species that will become extinct per unit of time, unit of reduced area or unit of species present in that area. Two methods of estimating the number of extinct species due to landscape area reduction are using the Species-Area Relationship (SAR) and the Endemics-Area Relationship (EAR).