Liebenberg syndrome

The Liebenberg syndrome is characterized by stiff elbow joints and the fusion of the wrist bones. The arms of Liebenberg patients basically resembles legs. This partial transformation is caused by the misexpression of a homeotic gene.

Side by side x-ray images. The Liebenberg patient arm shows a thickened upper arm bone, with a large flat joint connecting to a lower arm bone. In the normal arm x-ray, a thinner upper arm bone meets two thin lower arm bones in a rounded joint cavity.

Figure 1: X-ray images of a Liebenberg patient (left) and a normal arm (right)

The Liebenberg syndrome is inherited dominantly. Currently, there is no treatment, however, it is possible to surgically remove some wrist bones to create more regular wrist function.

Referred from: