Mitosis and Meiosis Comparison

Two types of cell division serving a different purpose: cell divisions where chromosomes/ DNA are exactly replicated in new cells (mitosis) and reduction division where the number of chromosomes is halved in the new cells (meiosis). Reduction division is essential if genetic information from each parent is to be contributed to the offspring. In both mitosis and meiosis, the chromosomes or chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of the cell by the mitotic spindle comprised of microtubules before cytokinesis.

The graphical representation of mitosis and meiosis indicates the basic differences between those processes. Mitosis consists of 6 phases, followed by one cytokinesis and resulting in two diploid cells, whereas meiosis consists of two sets of 6 phases, each phase ending in one cytokinesis, and the whole process results in four haploid cells.

Figure 1: Mitosis and Meiosis.

Summary of Differences:

  1. End product of mitosis is 2 daughter cells, whereas meiosis produces 4 daughter cells.

  2. Mitosis forms diploid cells that have the same number of chromosomes as the parent, whereas meiosis forms haploid cells with half the original number of chromosomes.

  3. Mitosis produces somatic cells (all cells except sex cells) while meiosis produces sex cells, ie. for example egg or sperm cells.

  4. Mitosis includes one round of cell division, while meiosis contains two rounds of cell division.

  5. Stages of mitosis include interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Stages of meiosis include interphase, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II. interphase, prophase one, metaphase one, anaphase one, telophase one, prophase two, metaphase two, anaphase two, and telophase two.

  6. In mitosis, homologs do not pair up, whereas in meiosis, homologs pair up.

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