# Seal oxygen consumption

**Oxygen consumption rate at rest can be calculated as follows:**

VO_{2} (rest) = F x (FIO_{2} - FEO_{2}) / [m x (1 - FIO_{2})], where

F is the flow rate (mL/min), FIO_{2} is the oxygen entering the dome, FEO_{2} is the oxygen exiting the dome and m is the seal mass (kg).

**To calculate the oxygen consumption rate during a dive, time is also added to the equation:**

VO_{2} (dive) = F x (FIO_{2} - FEO_{2}) / [m x (1 - FIO_{2})], where

F is the flow rate (mL/min), FIO_{2} is the oxygen entering the dome, FEO_{2} is the oxygen exiting the dome, m is the seal mass (kg) and t is the duration of the dive (min).

**For the dives we monitored today, here is a comparison of the oxygen consumption rates:**

**At rest:** 4.55 mL/min

**For the 12-minute dive:** 4.88 mL/min

**For the 30-minute dive:** 4.48 mL/min

As you can see, the seal used approximately the same or a bit less oxygen per minute during a 30-minute dive than they use during a 12-minute dive.

Seals show a much reduced factorial increase in oxygen consumption during diving relative to humans.