The silos are big constructions used typically for the storage of bulk solids. The term “bulk solids” is used to describe material that composites of a large number of small particles, like sand, grains, pills, and beans. The stored particles should be unaffected by the external weather phenomena or other contaminating substances, such as bacteria or dust; while being stored for a long period of time.

Without using additional equipment, such as dehydration pumps and flow promoting devices, silos are optimal for storing non-aromatic solids like grains. Such devices may increase the cost of constructing and maintaining the silo. In addition, flow promoting devices should only be used with extreme caution since they may induce additional loads to the construction that may potentially lead to failure.

The main property of a silo is that it is typically filled from the top and unloaded from the bottom while the bulk solids escape due to gravity. The material of the silo, as well as the angle and opening of the hopper, play the most important role at the discharge of the bulk solids.