Sperm, also known as sperm cells or spermatozoa are the male sex cells or gametes. These cells are produced in the testes by a process of meiotic division called spermatogenesis. Sperm are very small and lack most typical organelles. Additionally, sperm are the only human cells that have a flagellum.
Each sperm cell has three regions:
Head- contains the nucleus with the male’s genetic contribution to a new organism and the acrosome. The acrosome is a lysosomal like organelle that assists fertilization.
Midpiece- consists of many mitochondria that use the nutrients in the seminal fluid to make ATP to power movement of the tail.
Tail- a flagellum that moves the cell to the site of fertilization.
Figure 1: A labeled illustration of a sperm cell.
Semen is the fluid that leaves the body during ejaculation. Semen has 2 parts: