Transfection is a process that introduces nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells to modify gene expression, for the study of gene function and gene products. This technology was developed to enable nucleic acids such as DNA to enter the cells. Due to their negative net charge, which is the same as that in the cell membrane, they cannot enter without external aid. Therefore, researchers need chemical reagents or physical stimuli to allow the nucleic acids to enter the cells.

When performing a transfection experiment, researchers can choose between different transfection methods to introduce nucleic acids into the cells.

Currently, the most broadly used method is the lipid-based transfection method.