Law of Universal Gravitation

The law of universal gravitation relates the attractive gravitational force FG F G to the separation of two bodies’ center of mass ‘r’ and their masses 'M' Capital M and ‘m’. It is given by:

FG = -GMm/r2 F G equals - Gravitational constant * Capital M * m / r squared

Where ‘G’ is the universal gravitational constant. This result was derived by Sir Isaac Newton in his 1686 publication Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. This law implies that all objects with mass in the universe are attracted to one another.

Visualization of a law of gravitation. Two grey circles are placed at distance r from each other. The small circle has a certain mass indicated by small m, and the bigger circle has mass expressed as capital M. Both circles attract each other with a gravitational force F G, shown as two horizontal arrows, one coming from the centre of a small sphere towards the big sphere, and the second one in opposite direction, coming from the centre of a big sphere.

Figure 1: Schematic of gravitational forces acting between objects with masses m and M capital M separated by a distance r (distance between the center of masses).

Here you can read how Newton derived his law by simple observation of the night's sky.