Urinalysis is a simple and non-invasive method for examining a urine sample's physical, chemical, and microscopic characteristics. The results of this examination can indicate possible health conditions a patient may have or the status of a patient's health condition during treatment.

Urinalysis consists of three analysis steps: macroscopic, chemical, and microscopic.

Macroscopic analysis

This step is a gross examination of the urine's physical characteristics where the volume, color, clarity, and odor are observed and compared to reference values.

Chemical analysis

In this step, a series of chemical tests are performed, commonly using a dipstick, to examine the chemical characteristics of the urine sample. The dipstick has pads containing different chemicals that react with various components in the urine. By comparing the resultant colors on the dipstick pads to reference values, you can determine the level of different substances in the urine. Refractometer and osmometer measurements can support findings from the dipstick test.

Microscopic analysis

In the final step of urinalysis, the urine sample is examined under a microscope for cells, crystals, casts, microorganisms, and artifacts. Their numbers at high magnification (400x) are compared to reference values to determine possible causes.

1, macroscopic analysis of the urine. 2, chemical analysis dipping dipsticks in the urine. 3, microscopic analysis of the urine.

Figure 1: Urinalysis consists of three parts: macroscopic, chemical, and microscopic analysis.